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Glucose oxidase as label in histological immunoassays with enzyme-amplification in a two-step technique: coimmobilized horseradish peroxidase as secondary system enzyme for chromogen oxidation
A sensitive staining procedure for glucose oxidase (GOD) as marker in immunohistology is described. The cytochemical procedure involves a two-step enzyme method in which GOD and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are coimmobilized onto the same cellular sites by immunological bridging or by the principle of avidin-biotin interaction. In this coupled enzyme technique, H2O2 generated during GOD reaction is the substrate for HRP and is utilized for the oxidation of chromogens such as 3,3’-diaminobenzidine or 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole.
Due to the immobilization of the capture enzyme HRP in close proximity to the marker enzyme (GOD), more intense and specific staining is produced than can be obtained with soluble HRP as coupling enzyme in the substrate medium. Indirect antibody labelled and antibody bridge techniques including the avidin (streptavidin)-biotin principle have proven the usefulness of this GOD labelling procedure for antigen localization in paraffin sections. Antigens such as IgA in tonsil, alpha-fetoprotein in liver and tissue polypeptide antigen in mammary gland served as models.
The immobilized two-step enzyme procedures have the same order of sensitivity and specificity as comparable immunoperoxidase methods. The coupled GOD-HRP principle can be superior to conventional immunoperoxidase labelling for the localization of biomolecules in tissue preparations rich in endogenous peroxidase activities.