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Microscopy and stains in histology
Immune sera, Antibodies
Markers and conjugates
Tissue preparation
Immuno-staining, other ligand detection
Selection of staining protocols
Specificity, control reactions
Reagents, solutions
Laboratory methods
Acronyms
References
Applied cell labeling  

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Microscopy and Techniques for Selective Histological Staining
Identification of Cells and Biomolecules

Research activity is centered on the selective detection of cell markers with reference to histomorphology. Main areas of application are basic research and histopathological diagnostics. Here, we present reviews and articles which give with respect to historical developments an overview on the manifold immunohistochemical methods and detection systems.

The subject is divided into several chapters with separate self-contained articles. The latter are based on our lectures of immunohistology. Matter of interest and the different papers can be selected by links.

The historical review of developments in immunohistology is certainly not complete. Also, the selection of topics may be incomplete or not treated in detail enough. All chapters, however, will be updated from time to time including the reference list.


Microscopy and stains in histology
The microscope as a scientific tool and aspects in selective cell labeling by molecular probes

Immune sera, Antibodies
Immune sera are usually obtained from animals; polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies may be used. For highest specificity, purified antibodies are to be preferred.

Markers and conjugates
Various labels can be used for the detection of molecules. Antibodies are labeled with marker molecules by chemical conjugation with bifunctional reagents

Tissue preparation
Studies on structure-function relationship make stabilization of cells and tissue structure necessary. Tissue preparation must reconcile both cellular integrity and melecular reactivity

Immuno-staining, other ligand detection
Direct or indirect staining procedures are applied for the cellular detection of molecules. In the case of enzymes as markers, suitable cytochemical procedures must be employed

Selection of staining protocols
Some protocols for routine application of immuno-enzyme stainings are listed

Specificity, control reactions
False positive or false negative staining reactions may occur. They will depend on the employed reagents and on the selected tissue preparations

Reagents, solutions
List of widely employed reagents and solutions for immunohistological purposes

Laboratory methods
Choice of techniques and methods for immunohistological studies

Acronyms
Acronyms in biochemistry and biology

References
Selection of references for microscopy, histology and cell labeling studies

Applied cell labeling
Applications in the identification of cells and biomolecules by selective histological stainings